Antihypertensive therapy and the progression of chronic renal disease. Are there renoprotective drugs?

J. P. Tolins, L. Raij

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

The pathogenesis of hypertensive glomerular injury is complex, involving both hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic factors. One can therefore confidently predict that a wide variety of disparate therapeutic interventions, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, may be effective in arresting or slowing progressive glomerular injury. Based on the experimental and clinical literature available to date, it is clear that glomerular capillary hypertension is an important pathogenetic factor in this disease and that lowering of Pgc with antihypertensive drugs is associated with prevention of glomerular injury. Furthermore, the CEI may have a special renoprotective effect compared to other antihypertensive agents, most likely due to their unique renal hemodynamic actions. Pending the results of well-designed clinical trials, converting enzyme inhibitors represent the antihypertensive agents most likely to arrest the progressive decline in renal function observed in patients with hypertension and chronic renal failure. The calcium channel blockers are effective antihypertensive agents in patients with chronic renal failure, but whether they confer specific renoprotective effects remains uncertain. Since a large number of patients with chronic renal failure require more than one antihypertensive drug for adequate blood pressure control it may be of interest to evaluate the benefits of drug combinations. In this regard, it is possible that a combination of a CEI and a CCB may have complimentary effects in protecting the kidney. The development of these new classes of antihypertensive agents has had a major impact on the treatment of patients with chronic progressive renal failure. Future studies will hopefully clarify the optimal antihypertensive therapeutic regimen and allow us to move closer to the goal of eliminating end-stage renal failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)538-548
Number of pages11
JournalSeminars in Nephrology
Volume11
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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