Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of GHRH antagonists in prostate cancer

Laura Muñoz-Moreno, Maria Isabel Arenas, María J. Carmena, Andrew V. Schally, Manuel Sánchez-Chapado, Juan C. Prieto, Ana M. Bajo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and its receptors have been implicated in the progression of various tumors. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that GHRH antagonists inhibit the growth of several cancers. GHRH antagonists, JMR-132 and JV-1-38 inhibit the growth of androgen-independent prostate tumors. Here we investigated the involvement of GHRH antagonists in proliferative and apoptotic processes. We used non-tumoral RWPE-1 and tumoral LNCaP and PC3 human prostatic epithelial cells, as well as an experimental model of human tumor PC3 cells. We evaluated the effects of JMR-132 and JV-1-38 antagonists on cell viability and proliferation in the three cell lines by means of MTT and BrdU assays, respectively, as well as on cell cycle and apoptotic process in PC3 cells. The expression levels of PCNA, p53, p21, CD44, Cyclin D1, c-myc, Bax and Bcl2 were determined in both in vivo and in vitro models by means of Western-blot and RT-PCR. GHRH antagonists suppressed cell proliferation and decreased the levels of the proliferation marker, PCNA, in the three cell lines and in PC3 tumor. GHRH antagonists led to an increase of cells in S-phase and a decrease in G1 and G2/M phases, and induced S-phase arrest and increase of apoptotic cells. The effects of GHRH-antagonists on cell cycle could be due to the changes observed in the expression of p21, p53, Bax, Bcl2, CD44, Cyclin D1, c-myc and caspase 3. Present results confirm and extend the role of GHRH antagonists as anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic molecules in prostate cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52195-52206
Number of pages12
JournalOncotarget
Volume7
Issue number32
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Cell proliferation
  • GHRH
  • GHRH antagonists
  • Prostate cancer therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

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    Muñoz-Moreno, L., Arenas, M. I., Carmena, M. J., Schally, A. V., Sánchez-Chapado, M., Prieto, J. C., & Bajo, A. M. (2016). Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of GHRH antagonists in prostate cancer. Oncotarget, 7(32), 52195-52206. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10710