Antagonists of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and of bombesin/gastrin releasing peptide (BN/GRP) suppress the expression of VEGF, bFGF, and receptors of the EGF/HER family in PC-3 and DU-145 human androgen-independent prostate cancers

Anton Stangelberger, Andrew V. Schally, Jozsef L. Varga, Brian D. Hammann, Kate Groot, Gabor Halmos, Ren Zhi Cai, Marta Zarandi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Antagonists of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) as well as antagonists of bombesin/gastrin releasing peptide (BN/GRP) inhibit the growth of various malignancies (cancers) including prostate cancer. METHODS. We investigated the effects of GHRH antagonists MZ-J-7-118 and RC-J-29-18, BN/GRP antagonists RC-3940-II and RC-3940-Et and the combination of MZ-J-7-118 and RC-3940-II on the growth of PC-3 and DU-145 human androgen independent prostate cancers xenografted s.c. into nude mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of action of these analogs, growth factors like IGF-II (insulin-like growth factor-II), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R/HER) family were measured in tumors as well as IGF-I in serum. RESULTS. Antagonists of GHRH and BN/GRP alone or in combination significantly inhibited growth of PC-3 and DU-145 tumors, the greatest inhibition of tumor volume being achieved by combination of MZ-J-7-118 (5 μg/day) and RC-3940-II (10 μg/day). BN/GRP and GHRH antagonists and their combination also decreased the expression of VEGF significantly in PC-3 and non-significantly in DU-145, as measured by radioimmunoassay for VEGF protein and RT-PCR for mRNA levels of VEGF. GHRH and BN/GRP antagonists reduced bFGF concentrations and the maximal binding capacity of EGF receptors, and their mRNA levels in PC-3 and DU-145 tumors. mRNA levels for HER-2 and -3 were also diminished in PC-3 tumors by GHRH and BN/GRP antagonists. No changes in HER-4 were found after treatment. Serum IGF-I and tumoral IGF-II levels were not affected by the analogs. CONCLUSIONS. BN/GRP and GHRH antagonists inhibit growth of PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancers by suppressing the expression of tumoral growth factors such as VEGF and bFGF as well as the receptors for EGF and related HER-2 and -3. Additive effects on tumor inhibition (TI) in vivo, but not on VEGF, bFGF, or members of the EGF/HER receptor family, can be achieved by the joint administration of both classes of analogs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)303-315
Number of pages13
JournalProstate
Volume64
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Androgen independent prostate cancer
  • BN/GRP antagonist
  • EGF
  • EGF-R
  • FGF
  • GHRH antagonist
  • HER-2, -3, -4
  • IGF-I and II
  • VEGF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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