Anomalous moisture absorption in composites

Effects of diffusion hindrance on spatial moisture concentration

Landon R Grace, M. C. Altan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Susceptibility of polymeric composites to moisture absorption has been well known for several decades. Most often, a one-dimensional Fickian model is used to characterize and predict moisture diffusion into composite laminates. More sophisticated models accounting for the edge effects and absorption anisotropy have also been used. Recently, a hindered diffusion model that combines three-dimensional anisotropic diffusion with the anomalous long term moisture uptake has been proposed. Such phenomena have been commonly observed in various epoxy and other thermosetting resin systems, where the molecular level interaction of water with polymer can hinder diffusion rate at macro-scale. In this paper, the long term total moisture uptake and the anomalous moisture absorption profiles predicted by the anisotropic hindered diffusion model are investigated in detail. The nondimensional form of the absorption model is presented and the effect of the relevant diffusivity parameters and hindrance coefficient is identified. The numerical solutions of the time-dependent, three-dimensional concentration distributions are obtained. The accuracy of numerical solutions are verified against the available analytical solutions for specific cases. The three-dimensional absorption profiles are obtained for 6-, 12- and 40-ply, autoclave-cured quartz/BMI laminates immersed over a three-year period. The distinct edge effects, diffusion anisotropy and hindrance effects due to micro-structural morphology are discussed. The accuracy of the model predictions based on approximately 17 months of experimental data is investigated in light of additional data. Comparisons of experimentally measured mass gain with the mass gain obtained by the numerical solutions are presented. It is shown that the anomalous moisture absorption dynamics observed in all laminate sizes and thicknesses can be accurately predicted prior to experimental equilibrium by the hindered diffusion model.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication28th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites 2013, ASC 2013
Pages1560-1574
Number of pages15
Volume2
StatePublished - Dec 1 2013
Event28th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites 2013, ASC 2013 - State College, PA, United States
Duration: Sep 9 2013Sep 11 2013

Other

Other28th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites 2013, ASC 2013
CountryUnited States
CityState College, PA
Period9/9/139/11/13

Fingerprint

Moisture
Composite materials
Laminates
Anisotropy
Quartz
Thermosets
Autoclaves
Macros
Polymers
Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites

Cite this

Grace, L. R., & Altan, M. C. (2013). Anomalous moisture absorption in composites: Effects of diffusion hindrance on spatial moisture concentration. In 28th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites 2013, ASC 2013 (Vol. 2, pp. 1560-1574)

Anomalous moisture absorption in composites : Effects of diffusion hindrance on spatial moisture concentration. / Grace, Landon R; Altan, M. C.

28th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites 2013, ASC 2013. Vol. 2 2013. p. 1560-1574.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Grace, LR & Altan, MC 2013, Anomalous moisture absorption in composites: Effects of diffusion hindrance on spatial moisture concentration. in 28th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites 2013, ASC 2013. vol. 2, pp. 1560-1574, 28th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites 2013, ASC 2013, State College, PA, United States, 9/9/13.
Grace LR, Altan MC. Anomalous moisture absorption in composites: Effects of diffusion hindrance on spatial moisture concentration. In 28th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites 2013, ASC 2013. Vol. 2. 2013. p. 1560-1574
Grace, Landon R ; Altan, M. C. / Anomalous moisture absorption in composites : Effects of diffusion hindrance on spatial moisture concentration. 28th Annual Technical Conference of the American Society for Composites 2013, ASC 2013. Vol. 2 2013. pp. 1560-1574
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