Anatomical Correlates and Surgical Considerations for Localized Therapeutic Hypothermia Application in Cochlear Implantation Surgery

Enrique Perez, Andrea Viziano, Zaid Al-Zaghal, Fred F. Telischi, Rachele Sangaletti, Weitao Jiang, William Dalton Dietrich, Curtis King, Michael E. Hoffer, Suhrud M. Rajguru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Hypothesis: Application of localized, mild therapeutic hypothermia during cochlear implantation (CI) surgery is feasible for residual hearing preservation. Background: CI surgery often results in a loss of residual hearing. In preclinical studies, local application of controlled, mild therapeutic hypothermia has shown promising results as a hearing preservation strategy. This study investigated a suitable surgical approach to deliver local hypothermia in patients utilizing anatomical and radiologic measurements and experimental measurements from cadaveric human temporal bones. Methods: Ten human cadaveric temporal bones were scanned with micro-computed tomography and anatomical features and measurements predicting round window (RW) visibility were characterized. For each bone, the standard facial recess and myringotomy approaches for delivery of hypothermia were developed. The St. Thomas Hospital (STH) classification was used to record degree of RW visibility with and without placement of custom hypothermia probe. Therapeutic hypothermia was delivered through both approaches and temperatures recorded at the RW, RW niche, over the lateral semicircular canal and the supero-lateral mastoid edge. Results: The average facial recess area was 13.87 ± 5.52 mm2. The introduction of the cooling probe through either approach did not impede visualization of the RW or cochleostomy as determined by STH grading. The average temperatures at RW using the FR approach reduced by 4.57 ± 1.68 °C for RW, while using the myringotomy approach reduced by 4.11 ± 0.98 °C for RW. Conclusion: Local application of therapeutic hypothermia is clinically feasible both through the facial recess and myringotomy approaches without limiting optimal surgical visualization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1167-1177
Number of pages11
JournalOtology and Neurotology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


  • Cochlea
  • Cochlear implant
  • Electrode insertion
  • Hearing
  • Hearing loss
  • Neuroprosthetics
  • Residual hearing
  • Therapeutic hypothermia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Clinical Neurology


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