Purpose: Longitudinally visualizing relative blood flow speeds within choroidal neovascularization (CNV) may provide valuable information regarding the evolution of CNV and the response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Design: Retrospective, longitudinal case series conducted at the New England Eye Center. Participants: Patients with either treatment-naïve or previously treated CNV secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was performed using a 400-kHz, 1050-nm swept-source OCT system with a 5-repeat B-scan protocol. Variable interscan time analysis (VISTA) was used to compute relative flow speeds from pairs of B-scans having 1.5- and 3.0-ms separations; VISTA signals then were mapped to a color space for display. Main Outcome Measures: Quantitative outcomes included OCTA-based area and volume measurements of CNV at initial and follow-up visits. Qualitative outcomes included VISTA OCTA analysis of relative blood flow speeds, along with analysis of contraction, expansion, densification, and rarefication of CNV. Results: Seven eyes of 6 patients (4 women and 2 men) with neovascular age-related macular degeneration were evaluated. Two eyes were treatment naïve at the initial visit. Choroidal neovascularization in all eyes at each visit showed relatively higher flow speeds in the trunk, central, and larger vessels and lower flow speed in the small vessels, which generally were located at the periphery of the CNV complex. Overall, the CNV appeared to expand over time despite retention of good visual acuity in all patients. In the treatment-naïve patients, slower-flow-speed vessels contracted with treatment, whereas the larger vessels with higher flow speed remained constant. Conclusions: Variable interscan time analysis OCTA allows for longitudinal observations of relative blood flow speeds in CNV treated with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections. A common finding in this study is that the main trunk and larger vessels seem to have relatively faster blood flow speeds compared with the lesions' peripheral vasculature. Moreover, an overall growth of chronically treated CNV was seen despite retention of good visual acuity. The VISTA framework may prove useful for developing clinical end points, as well as for studying hemodynamics, disease pathogenesis, and treatment response.
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