Development of an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will require knowledge of the immune responses that correlate with protection. During the acute phase of HIV infection the host immune responses appear to control viral replication. It is thought that virus-specific cellular immunity is intimately involved in this viral control. We have developed a model system to measure the entire T cell response and viral evolution in the face of this onslaught in rhesus macaques during the acute phase of infection with molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We used intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from animals during the acute phase of viral infection stimulated with peptides spanning the entire protein sequence of SIV to determine which peptides were recognized by CD8 and CD4 positive T cells. Furthermore, we sequenced the entire virus during the acute phase of infection. This approach has proved highly effective for measuring acute phase T cell responses and viral evolution in SIV-infected rhesus macaques and might facilitate the definition of cellular immune responses in HIV-infected humans during the acute phase.
- Acute infection
- Virus-specific T cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health