An updated anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean

K. Lee, S. D. Choi, G. H. Park, R. Wanninkhof, T. H. Peng, R. M. Key, C. L. Sabine, R. A. Feely, J. L. Bullister, Frank J Millero, Alex Kozyr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the basin-wide inventory of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Atlantic Ocean based on high-quality inorganic carbon, alkalinity, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) surveys of the Atlantic Ocean between 1990 and 1998. Anthropogenic CO 2 was separated from the large pool of dissolved inorganic carbon using an extended version of the ΔC*method originally developed by Gruber et al. [ 1996]. The extension of the method includes the use of an optimum multiparameter analysis to determine the relative contributions from various source water types to the sample on an isopyenal surface. Total inventories of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Atlantic Ocean are highest in the subtropical regions at 20°-40°, whereas anthropogenic CO 2 penetrates the deepest in high-latitude regions (>40°N). The deeper penetration at high northern latitudes is largely due to the formation of deep water that feeds the Deep Western Boundary Current, which transports anthropogenic CO 2 into the interior. In contrast, waters south of 50°S in the Southern Ocean contain little anthropogenic CO 2. Analysis of the data collected during the 1990-1998 period yielded a total anthropogenic CO 2 inventory of 28.4 ± 4.7 Pg C in the North Atlantic (equator-70°N) and of 18.5 ± 3.9 Pg C in the South Atlantic (equator-70°S). These estimated basin-wide inventories of anthropogenic CO 2 are in good agreement with previous estimates obtained by Gruber [1998], after accounting for the difference in observational periods. Our calculation of the anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean, in conjunction with the inventories calculated previously for the Indian Ocean [Sabine et al., 1999] and for the Pacific Ocean [Sabine et al., 2002], yields a global anthropogenic CO 2 inventory of 112 2 ± 17 Pg C that has accumulated in the world oceans during the industrial era. This global oceanic uptake accounts for approximately 29% of the total CO 2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, land-use changes, and cement production during the past 250 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles
Volume17
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2003

Fingerprint

Carbon Monoxide
ocean
Carbon
Water
western boundary current
subtropical region
CFC
inorganic carbon
dissolved inorganic carbon
global ocean
Chlorofluorocarbons
basin
alkalinity
fossil fuel
land use change
cement
penetration
deep water
Alkalinity
Fossil fuels

Keywords

  • Air-sea disequilibrium
  • Anthropogenic CO
  • Atlantic Ocean

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

Lee, K., Choi, S. D., Park, G. H., Wanninkhof, R., Peng, T. H., Key, R. M., ... Kozyr, A. (2003). An updated anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17(4).

An updated anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean. / Lee, K.; Choi, S. D.; Park, G. H.; Wanninkhof, R.; Peng, T. H.; Key, R. M.; Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.; Bullister, J. L.; Millero, Frank J; Kozyr, Alex.

In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 17, No. 4, 12.2003.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lee, K, Choi, SD, Park, GH, Wanninkhof, R, Peng, TH, Key, RM, Sabine, CL, Feely, RA, Bullister, JL, Millero, FJ & Kozyr, A 2003, 'An updated anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean', Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 17, no. 4.
Lee K, Choi SD, Park GH, Wanninkhof R, Peng TH, Key RM et al. An updated anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2003 Dec;17(4).
Lee, K. ; Choi, S. D. ; Park, G. H. ; Wanninkhof, R. ; Peng, T. H. ; Key, R. M. ; Sabine, C. L. ; Feely, R. A. ; Bullister, J. L. ; Millero, Frank J ; Kozyr, Alex. / An updated anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean. In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2003 ; Vol. 17, No. 4.
@article{1ff0fdcf670148b3947450bbdf9c664c,
title = "An updated anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean",
abstract = "This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the basin-wide inventory of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Atlantic Ocean based on high-quality inorganic carbon, alkalinity, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) surveys of the Atlantic Ocean between 1990 and 1998. Anthropogenic CO 2 was separated from the large pool of dissolved inorganic carbon using an extended version of the ΔC*method originally developed by Gruber et al. [ 1996]. The extension of the method includes the use of an optimum multiparameter analysis to determine the relative contributions from various source water types to the sample on an isopyenal surface. Total inventories of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Atlantic Ocean are highest in the subtropical regions at 20°-40°, whereas anthropogenic CO 2 penetrates the deepest in high-latitude regions (>40°N). The deeper penetration at high northern latitudes is largely due to the formation of deep water that feeds the Deep Western Boundary Current, which transports anthropogenic CO 2 into the interior. In contrast, waters south of 50°S in the Southern Ocean contain little anthropogenic CO 2. Analysis of the data collected during the 1990-1998 period yielded a total anthropogenic CO 2 inventory of 28.4 ± 4.7 Pg C in the North Atlantic (equator-70°N) and of 18.5 ± 3.9 Pg C in the South Atlantic (equator-70°S). These estimated basin-wide inventories of anthropogenic CO 2 are in good agreement with previous estimates obtained by Gruber [1998], after accounting for the difference in observational periods. Our calculation of the anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean, in conjunction with the inventories calculated previously for the Indian Ocean [Sabine et al., 1999] and for the Pacific Ocean [Sabine et al., 2002], yields a global anthropogenic CO 2 inventory of 112 2 ± 17 Pg C that has accumulated in the world oceans during the industrial era. This global oceanic uptake accounts for approximately 29{\%} of the total CO 2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, land-use changes, and cement production during the past 250 years.",
keywords = "Air-sea disequilibrium, Anthropogenic CO, Atlantic Ocean",
author = "K. Lee and Choi, {S. D.} and Park, {G. H.} and R. Wanninkhof and Peng, {T. H.} and Key, {R. M.} and Sabine, {C. L.} and Feely, {R. A.} and Bullister, {J. L.} and Millero, {Frank J} and Alex Kozyr",
year = "2003",
month = "12",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "17",
journal = "Global Biogeochemical Cycles",
issn = "0886-6236",
publisher = "American Geophysical Union",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - An updated anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean

AU - Lee, K.

AU - Choi, S. D.

AU - Park, G. H.

AU - Wanninkhof, R.

AU - Peng, T. H.

AU - Key, R. M.

AU - Sabine, C. L.

AU - Feely, R. A.

AU - Bullister, J. L.

AU - Millero, Frank J

AU - Kozyr, Alex

PY - 2003/12

Y1 - 2003/12

N2 - This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the basin-wide inventory of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Atlantic Ocean based on high-quality inorganic carbon, alkalinity, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) surveys of the Atlantic Ocean between 1990 and 1998. Anthropogenic CO 2 was separated from the large pool of dissolved inorganic carbon using an extended version of the ΔC*method originally developed by Gruber et al. [ 1996]. The extension of the method includes the use of an optimum multiparameter analysis to determine the relative contributions from various source water types to the sample on an isopyenal surface. Total inventories of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Atlantic Ocean are highest in the subtropical regions at 20°-40°, whereas anthropogenic CO 2 penetrates the deepest in high-latitude regions (>40°N). The deeper penetration at high northern latitudes is largely due to the formation of deep water that feeds the Deep Western Boundary Current, which transports anthropogenic CO 2 into the interior. In contrast, waters south of 50°S in the Southern Ocean contain little anthropogenic CO 2. Analysis of the data collected during the 1990-1998 period yielded a total anthropogenic CO 2 inventory of 28.4 ± 4.7 Pg C in the North Atlantic (equator-70°N) and of 18.5 ± 3.9 Pg C in the South Atlantic (equator-70°S). These estimated basin-wide inventories of anthropogenic CO 2 are in good agreement with previous estimates obtained by Gruber [1998], after accounting for the difference in observational periods. Our calculation of the anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean, in conjunction with the inventories calculated previously for the Indian Ocean [Sabine et al., 1999] and for the Pacific Ocean [Sabine et al., 2002], yields a global anthropogenic CO 2 inventory of 112 2 ± 17 Pg C that has accumulated in the world oceans during the industrial era. This global oceanic uptake accounts for approximately 29% of the total CO 2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, land-use changes, and cement production during the past 250 years.

AB - This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the basin-wide inventory of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Atlantic Ocean based on high-quality inorganic carbon, alkalinity, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program, the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES) surveys of the Atlantic Ocean between 1990 and 1998. Anthropogenic CO 2 was separated from the large pool of dissolved inorganic carbon using an extended version of the ΔC*method originally developed by Gruber et al. [ 1996]. The extension of the method includes the use of an optimum multiparameter analysis to determine the relative contributions from various source water types to the sample on an isopyenal surface. Total inventories of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Atlantic Ocean are highest in the subtropical regions at 20°-40°, whereas anthropogenic CO 2 penetrates the deepest in high-latitude regions (>40°N). The deeper penetration at high northern latitudes is largely due to the formation of deep water that feeds the Deep Western Boundary Current, which transports anthropogenic CO 2 into the interior. In contrast, waters south of 50°S in the Southern Ocean contain little anthropogenic CO 2. Analysis of the data collected during the 1990-1998 period yielded a total anthropogenic CO 2 inventory of 28.4 ± 4.7 Pg C in the North Atlantic (equator-70°N) and of 18.5 ± 3.9 Pg C in the South Atlantic (equator-70°S). These estimated basin-wide inventories of anthropogenic CO 2 are in good agreement with previous estimates obtained by Gruber [1998], after accounting for the difference in observational periods. Our calculation of the anthropogenic CO 2 inventory in the Atlantic Ocean, in conjunction with the inventories calculated previously for the Indian Ocean [Sabine et al., 1999] and for the Pacific Ocean [Sabine et al., 2002], yields a global anthropogenic CO 2 inventory of 112 2 ± 17 Pg C that has accumulated in the world oceans during the industrial era. This global oceanic uptake accounts for approximately 29% of the total CO 2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, land-use changes, and cement production during the past 250 years.

KW - Air-sea disequilibrium

KW - Anthropogenic CO

KW - Atlantic Ocean

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1642322257&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1642322257&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 17

JO - Global Biogeochemical Cycles

JF - Global Biogeochemical Cycles

SN - 0886-6236

IS - 4

ER -