An update on the available and emerging pharmacotherapy for adults with testosterone deficiency available in the USA

Eliyahu Kresch, Mehul Patel, Thiago Fernandes Negris Lima, Ranjith Ramasamy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: Testosterone deficiency (TD) is defined as low serum testosterone associated with symptoms and signs. There has been an increasing prevalence of TD in recent decades, especially in males aged 15–39. Many of these men will require long-term testosterone therapy (TT). Although the end-goals for all treatments are essentially the same, strategies for increasing serum testosterone should be decided individually. Areas covered: This review focuses on the pharmacological management of TD in adults which includes TT with different routes of administration, such as transdermal, buccal, intramuscular and subcutaneous injections, pellets, nasal gel, and oral (pills). The authors review the options for TT available in the USA with emphasis on newer therapies. Furthermore, they examine the efficacy of these therapies with comparison between potential advantages or disadvantages related to dosing, administration method, and adverse events. Expert opinion: Treating TD can be difficult due to the wide range of available medications, diverse side effects related to testosterone replacement and route-of-administration, and necessity for long-term therapy. The combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies can improve symptoms of TD and patient satisfaction. Each patient should be managed individually, and clinicians should consider available treatment regimens based on the route-of-administration, efficacy, safety, and cost based on a shared decision-making approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Testosterone therapy
  • hypogonadism
  • testosterone deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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