Remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs), which is defined as the ratio of water-leaving radiance (Lw) to downwelling irradiance just above the surface (Ed(0+)), varies with both water constituents (including bottom properties of optically-shallow waters) and angular geometry. Lw is commonly measured in the field or by satellite sensors at convenient angles, while Ed(0+) can be measured in the field or estimated based on atmospheric properties. To isolate the variations of Rrs (or Lw) resulting from a change of water constituents, the angular effects of Rrs (or Lw) need to be removed. This is also a necessity for the calibration and validation of satellite ocean color measurements. To reach this objective, for optically-deep waters where bottom contribution is negligible, we present a system centered on water's inherent optical properties (IOPs). It can be used to derive IOPs from angular Rrs and offers an alternative to the system centered on the concentration of chlorophyll. This system is applicable to oceanic and coastal waters as well as to multiband and hyperspectral sensors. This IOP-centered system is applied to both numerically simulated data and in situ measurements to test and evaluate its performance. The good results obtained suggest that the system can be applied to angular Rrs to retrieve IOPs and to remove the angular variation of Rrs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering