An essential role for diet in exercise-mediated protection against dyslipidemia, inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice

Liliana Cesar, Samuel Vasallo Suarez, Jennipher Adi, Nikhil Adi, Roberto I Vazquez-Padron, Hong Yu, Qi Ma, Pascal Goldschmidt-Clermont, Arthur Agatston, Paul Kurlansky, Keith A Webster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Diet and exercise promote cardiovascular health but their relative contributions to atherosclerosis are not fully known. The transition from a sedentary to active lifestyle requires increased caloric intake to achieve energy balance. Using atherosclerosis-prone ApoE-null mice we sought to determine whether the benefits of exercise for arterial disease are dependent on the food source of the additional calories. Methods and Results: Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 4.5 months to initiate atherosclerosis after which time half were continued on HF while the other half were switched to a high protein/fish oil diet (HP). Half of each group underwent voluntary running. Food intake, running distance, body weight, lipids, inflammation markers, and atherosclerotic plaque were quantified. Two-way ANOVA tests were used to assess differences and interactions between groups. Exercised mice ran approximately 6-km per day with no difference between groups. Both groups increased food intake during exercise and there was a significant main effect of exercise F((1,44) = 9.86, p<0.01) without interaction. Diet or exercise produced significant independent effects on body weight (diet: F(1,52) = 6.85, p = 0.012; exercise: F(1,52) = 9.52, p<0.01) with no significant interaction. The combination of HP diet and exercise produced a greater decrease in total cholesterol (F(1, 46) = 7.9, p<0.01) and LDL (F(1, 46) = 7.33, p<0.01) with a large effect on the size of the interaction. HP diet and exercise independently reduced TGL and VLDL (p<0.05 and 0.001 respectively). Interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein were highest in the HF-sedentary group and were significantly reduced by exercise only in this group. Plaque accumulation in the aortic arch, a marker of cardiovascular events was reduced by the HP diet and the effect was significantly potentiated by exercise only in this group resulting in significant plaque regression (F1, 49 = 4.77, p<0.05). Conclusion: In this model exercise is beneficial to combat dyslipidemia and protect from atherosclerosis only when combined with diet.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere17263
JournalPLoS One
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 28 2011

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Apolipoproteins E
hyperlipidemia
Nutrition
Dyslipidemias
atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
exercise
inflammation
Diet
Inflammation
mice
diet
High Fat Diet
high fat diet
Running
Fats
Eating
Body Weight
food intake
Fish Oils

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

An essential role for diet in exercise-mediated protection against dyslipidemia, inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. / Cesar, Liliana; Suarez, Samuel Vasallo; Adi, Jennipher; Adi, Nikhil; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Yu, Hong; Ma, Qi; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal; Agatston, Arthur; Kurlansky, Paul; Webster, Keith A.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 6, No. 2, e17263, 28.02.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cesar, L, Suarez, SV, Adi, J, Adi, N, Vazquez-Padron, RI, Yu, H, Ma, Q, Goldschmidt-Clermont, P, Agatston, A, Kurlansky, P & Webster, KA 2011, 'An essential role for diet in exercise-mediated protection against dyslipidemia, inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice', PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 2, e17263. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017263
Cesar, Liliana ; Suarez, Samuel Vasallo ; Adi, Jennipher ; Adi, Nikhil ; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I ; Yu, Hong ; Ma, Qi ; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal ; Agatston, Arthur ; Kurlansky, Paul ; Webster, Keith A. / An essential role for diet in exercise-mediated protection against dyslipidemia, inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. In: PLoS One. 2011 ; Vol. 6, No. 2.
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author = "Liliana Cesar and Suarez, {Samuel Vasallo} and Jennipher Adi and Nikhil Adi and Vazquez-Padron, {Roberto I} and Hong Yu and Qi Ma and Pascal Goldschmidt-Clermont and Arthur Agatston and Paul Kurlansky and Webster, {Keith A}",
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AU - Adi, Nikhil

AU - Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I

AU - Yu, Hong

AU - Ma, Qi

AU - Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal

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AU - Kurlansky, Paul

AU - Webster, Keith A

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N2 - Background: Diet and exercise promote cardiovascular health but their relative contributions to atherosclerosis are not fully known. The transition from a sedentary to active lifestyle requires increased caloric intake to achieve energy balance. Using atherosclerosis-prone ApoE-null mice we sought to determine whether the benefits of exercise for arterial disease are dependent on the food source of the additional calories. Methods and Results: Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 4.5 months to initiate atherosclerosis after which time half were continued on HF while the other half were switched to a high protein/fish oil diet (HP). Half of each group underwent voluntary running. Food intake, running distance, body weight, lipids, inflammation markers, and atherosclerotic plaque were quantified. Two-way ANOVA tests were used to assess differences and interactions between groups. Exercised mice ran approximately 6-km per day with no difference between groups. Both groups increased food intake during exercise and there was a significant main effect of exercise F((1,44) = 9.86, p<0.01) without interaction. Diet or exercise produced significant independent effects on body weight (diet: F(1,52) = 6.85, p = 0.012; exercise: F(1,52) = 9.52, p<0.01) with no significant interaction. The combination of HP diet and exercise produced a greater decrease in total cholesterol (F(1, 46) = 7.9, p<0.01) and LDL (F(1, 46) = 7.33, p<0.01) with a large effect on the size of the interaction. HP diet and exercise independently reduced TGL and VLDL (p<0.05 and 0.001 respectively). Interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein were highest in the HF-sedentary group and were significantly reduced by exercise only in this group. Plaque accumulation in the aortic arch, a marker of cardiovascular events was reduced by the HP diet and the effect was significantly potentiated by exercise only in this group resulting in significant plaque regression (F1, 49 = 4.77, p<0.05). Conclusion: In this model exercise is beneficial to combat dyslipidemia and protect from atherosclerosis only when combined with diet.

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