A technical innovation of a novel ureter implantation technique on rat kidney allograft transplantation is described. The left kidney graft is transplanted heterotopically into the left infrarenal position, using vascular conduits from donor abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava in continuity to renal vessels, to perform arterial and venous end-to-side anastomoses to the recipient vessels. A new ureter implantation technique was employed by placing a purse-string suture around the uretero-vesical anastomosis and ligated at the end of the anastomosis to invaginate the ureter and relieve tension at its junction to the bladder. This functions as an anti-reflux procedure, also preventing urine leakage. Bilateral native kidneys nephrectomy of the recipient was performed a week post-transplant. This model of rat kidney transplantation was associated with high survival rate (87%) 2 weeks post-transplant with no evidence of vascular anastomoses complications or other technical failures. The technique is easy, reliable, and can be routinely applied to other microvascular transplantation procedures.
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