An anomaly detection framework for dynamic systems using a Bayesian hierarchical framework

Ramin Moghaddass, Shuangwen Sheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Complex systems are susceptible to many types of anomalies, faults, and abnormal behavior caused by a variety of off-nominal conditions that may ultimately result in major failures or catastrophic events. Early and accurate detection of these anomalies using system inputs and outputs collected from sensors and smart devices has become a challenging problem and an active area of research in many application domains. In this article, we present a new Bayesian hierarchical framework that is able to model the relationship between system inputs (sensor measurements) and outputs (response variables) without imposing strong distributional/parametric assumptions while using only a subset of training samples and sensor attributes. Then, an optimal cost-sensitive anomaly detection framework is proposed to determine whether a sample is an anomalous one taking into consideration the trade-off between misclassification errors and detection rates. The model can be used for both supervised and unsupervised settings depending on the availability of data regarding the behavior of the system under anomaly conditions. The unsupervised model is particularly useful when it is prohibitive to identify in advance the anomalies that a system may present and where no data are available regarding the behavior of the system under anomaly conditions. A Bayesian hierarchical setting is used to structure the proposed framework and help with accommodating uncertainty, imposing interpretability, and controlling the sparsity and complexity of the proposed anomaly detection framework. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is also developed for model training using past data. The numerical experiments conducted using a simulated data set and a wind turbine data set demonstrate the successful application of the proposed work for system response modeling and anomaly detection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)561-582
Number of pages22
JournalApplied Energy
StatePublished - Apr 15 2019


  • Anomaly detection
  • Bayesian Modeling
  • Dynamic systems
  • Sensor-intensive energy systems
  • Wind turbine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Energy(all)
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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