Alzheimer's “prevention” vs. “Risk reduction”: Transcending semantics for clinical practice

John F. Hodes, Carlee I. Oakley, James H. O'Keefe, Peilin Lu, James E. Galvin, Nabeel Saif, Sonia Bellara, Aneela Rahman, Yakir Kaufman, Hollie Hristov, Tarek K. Rajji, Anne Marie Fosnacht Morgan, Smita Patel, David A. Merrill, Scott Kaiser, Josefina Meléndez-Cabrero, Juan A. Melendez, Robert Krikorian, Richard S. Isaacson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The terms “prevention” and “risk reduction” are often used interchangeably in medicine. There is considerable debate, however, over the use of these terms in describing interventions that aim to preserve cognitive health and/or delay disease progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for patients seeking clinical care. Furthermore, it is important to distinguish between Alzheimer's disease prevention and Alzheimer's dementia prevention when using these terms. While prior studies have codified research-based criteria for the progressive stages of AD, there are no clear clinical consensus criteria to guide the use of these terms for physicians in practice. A clear understanding of the implications of each term will help guide clinical practice and clinical research. The authors explore the semantics and appropriate use of the terms “prevention” and “risk reduction” as they relate to AD in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1179
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Issue numberJAN
StatePublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Alzheimer's disease prevention
  • Dementia prevention
  • Precision medicine
  • Primary prevention
  • Risk reduction
  • Secondary prevention
  • Tertiary prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Alzheimer's “prevention” vs. “Risk reduction”: Transcending semantics for clinical practice'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this