Background: We examined the outcomes of older adults undergoing nontrans-femoral (non-TF) transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures including trans-apical (TA), trans-aortic (TAo), trans-subclavian (TSub), and trans-carotid (TCa) techniques. Methods and Results: This is an observational study of all consecutive older patients who underwent non-TF TAVR for symptomatic severe AS with Edwards Sapien (ES), Medtronic CoreValve, ES3 or Lotus Valve at three centers in France and the United States from 04/2008 to 02/2017. Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were defined according to VARC-2 criteria. Of 857 patients who received TAVR, 172 (20%) had an alternative access procedure. Of these, 45 (26%) were TA, 67 (39%) TAo, 17 (10%) TSub, and 43 (25%) TCa procedures. The preference for non-TF access site was different between the two countries (US: TA 39%, TAo 52%, TSub 9%; TCa 0% vs. France: TA 9%, TAo 23%, TSub 11%, and TCa 57%, P-value <.001). Most patients who underwent TAo TAVR were older women (median age: TA 82, TAo 84, TSub 81, TCa 81, P-value = 0.043; female gender: TA 32 (27%), TAo 30 (55%), TSub 10 (41%), TCa 27 (37%), P-value =.021). The predicted Society of Thoracic Surgery risk of mortality was similar among groups (TA 7%, TAo 7%, TSub 6%, TCa 7%, P-value=.738). No differences were observed in the frequency of para-valvular leak, intra-procedural bleeding, vascular complications, conversion to open-heart surgery, or development of acute kidney injury. The highest in-hospital mortality was observed in the TAo group (TA 2%, TAo 15%, TSub 0%, TCa 2%, P-value =.014). However, hospital length of stay, one-month, and one-year mortality were similar among non-TF techniques. Conclusion: Although regional differences exist in the choice of alternative access techniques, centers with high technical expertise can provide a safe alternative to traditional TF TAVR. TAo TAVR was associated with higher in-hospital mortality than other non-TF approaches, and this may have reflected patient rather than procedural factors. All alternative access techniques had similar mortality rates and clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up. Trans-carotid access is safe and feasible compared to other non-TF access techniques.
- aortic valve stenosis
- transcatheter aortic valve replacement
- vascular access
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine