Myocardial extracellular matrix expansion and reduced coronary flow reserve (CFR) occur in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without heart failure or coronary artery disease. Because aldosterone is implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiac fibrosis and vascular injury, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that aldosterone is associated with extracellular matrix expansion and reduced CFR in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without evidence of coronary artery disease were recruited. Blood pressure, lipid management, and glycemic control were optimized over 3 months. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with T1 mapping was used to measure myocardial extracellular volume (ECV). Cardiac positron emission tomography was used to assess CFR. On a liberal, 250 mEq/day sodium diet, 24-hour urinary aldosterone and change in serum aldosterone with angiotensin II stimulation were measured. Fifty-three participants with type 2 diabetes (68% men, mean age 53 ± 7 years, mean body mass index 32.2 ± 4.3 kg/m2, mean glycosylated hemoglobin 6.8 ± 0.7%, mean systolic blood pressure 126 ± 14 mm Hg) without infarction or ischemia by cardiac magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography were studied. Subjects had impaired CFR (2.51 ± 0.83) and elevated ECV (0.36 ± 0.05), despite normal echocardiographic diastolic function and normal left ventricular function. Myocardial ECV, but not CFR, was positively associated with 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion (r = 0.37, p = 0.01) and angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone increase (r = 0.35, p = 0.02). In a best-overall multivariate model (including age, gender, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin, and blood pressure), 24-hour urinary aldosterone was the strongest predictor of myocardial ECV (p = 0.004). In conclusion, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without coronary artery disease, aldosterone is associated with myocardial extracellular matrix expansion. These results implicate aldosterone in early myocardial remodeling in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine