The dimensionality of self-construal, and the consistency of this dimensionality across age and gender, was examined using confirmatory factor and measurement invariance analyses. Across young and older adults, across men and women, and across White Americans and Hispanic Americans, a four-factor solution, including vertical and horizontal interdependence and vertical and horizontal independence, fitted the data better than a two-factor solution with vertical and horizontal dimensions posited as single factors. These results support the hypothesized individual-level multidimensionality of self-construal and suggest that it is structurally similar to the dimensionality of individualism - collectivism at the cultural level. Latent mean comparisons revealed that elders valued uniqueness, on average, more than young adults and that both genders strive equally for achievement, albeit through different means. Implications for cross-level (i.e., cultural vs. individual) and multidimensional understandings of the self are discussed.
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