PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis is a heterogeneous disorder. Biomarkers to monitor disease activities are highly desirable especially because of the recent shift toward personalized medicine that coincides with the expansion of disease-modifying therapy. The visual system is highly involved in multiple sclerosis, and the rapid advancement of ophthalmic techniques has boosted the development of potential ocular biomarkers for multiple sclerosis management. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have found that the rapid thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) occurs in the progressive stage. Furthermore, the inter-eye thickness difference of the GCIPL could be used in identifying unilateral optic neuritis to facilitate the early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Moreover, the retinal microvascular alterations measured as vessel density were found to be related to the disability and visual function, although a standardized protocol to measure retinal microvascular alterations has not been well established. Additionally, aberrant ocular motility, such as fixation microsaccades, can be used to measure disability objectively. SUMMARY: The fast expansion of potential ocular biomarkers measured as retinal microstructural, microvascular, and ocular motility changes may facilitate the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology