Advanced treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate by integrated activated carbon and iron-activated persulfate oxidation

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11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) has been complicated in terms of feasibility, cost, and most importantly, efficiency in removing contaminants. While adsorbents such as activated carbon, coal, and fly ash can remove organics, they may not be effective in removing nutrient salts that cause algae growth. Moreover, with regards to physical treatment, removing contaminants using adsorbents may not be appropriate, as toxic and non-biodegradable pollutants are not transformed or degraded into non-toxic forms. In this study, a series of processes involving adsorption using activated carbon and oxidation by hydroxyl and sulfate radicals were assessed as a means of treating ROC. The method includes treating water containing organics with an adsorbent, and adding nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) to the water in the presence of oxygen, followed by the addition of persulfate, where the water is oxidized with reactive oxygen species (e.g., hydroxyl radical, peroxide, superoxide anion) produced by the addition of ZVI and persulfate radicals generated from persulfate activated by the addition of nZVI. Removal of non-biodegradable organics (as well as nitrogen and phosphorous) and nutrient salts not readily removed by conventional treatment methods can be effectively accomplished through the physical removal method described, using activated carbon, and by a chemical removal method using radical oxidation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2076
JournalWater, Air, & Soil Pollution
Volume225
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Reverse osmosis
Activated carbon
Adsorbents
Coal Ash
activated carbon
Iron
oxidation
iron
Hydroxyl Radical
Oxidation
Nutrients
Water
Salts
Impurities
Oxygen
Poisons
Peroxides
Algae
salt
Fly ash

Keywords

  • Activated carbon
  • Aerobic conditions
  • Persulfate radical
  • Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC)
  • Zero-valent iron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology

Cite this

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abstract = "Treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) has been complicated in terms of feasibility, cost, and most importantly, efficiency in removing contaminants. While adsorbents such as activated carbon, coal, and fly ash can remove organics, they may not be effective in removing nutrient salts that cause algae growth. Moreover, with regards to physical treatment, removing contaminants using adsorbents may not be appropriate, as toxic and non-biodegradable pollutants are not transformed or degraded into non-toxic forms. In this study, a series of processes involving adsorption using activated carbon and oxidation by hydroxyl and sulfate radicals were assessed as a means of treating ROC. The method includes treating water containing organics with an adsorbent, and adding nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) to the water in the presence of oxygen, followed by the addition of persulfate, where the water is oxidized with reactive oxygen species (e.g., hydroxyl radical, peroxide, superoxide anion) produced by the addition of ZVI and persulfate radicals generated from persulfate activated by the addition of nZVI. Removal of non-biodegradable organics (as well as nitrogen and phosphorous) and nutrient salts not readily removed by conventional treatment methods can be effectively accomplished through the physical removal method described, using activated carbon, and by a chemical removal method using radical oxidation.",
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AB - Treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) has been complicated in terms of feasibility, cost, and most importantly, efficiency in removing contaminants. While adsorbents such as activated carbon, coal, and fly ash can remove organics, they may not be effective in removing nutrient salts that cause algae growth. Moreover, with regards to physical treatment, removing contaminants using adsorbents may not be appropriate, as toxic and non-biodegradable pollutants are not transformed or degraded into non-toxic forms. In this study, a series of processes involving adsorption using activated carbon and oxidation by hydroxyl and sulfate radicals were assessed as a means of treating ROC. The method includes treating water containing organics with an adsorbent, and adding nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) to the water in the presence of oxygen, followed by the addition of persulfate, where the water is oxidized with reactive oxygen species (e.g., hydroxyl radical, peroxide, superoxide anion) produced by the addition of ZVI and persulfate radicals generated from persulfate activated by the addition of nZVI. Removal of non-biodegradable organics (as well as nitrogen and phosphorous) and nutrient salts not readily removed by conventional treatment methods can be effectively accomplished through the physical removal method described, using activated carbon, and by a chemical removal method using radical oxidation.

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