Advanced retinal imaging and applications for clinical practice: A consensus review

Meira Fogel-Levin, Srini Vas R. Sadda, Philip J. Rosenfeld, Nadia Waheed, Giuseppe Querques, Bailey K. Freund, David Sarraf

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Imaging is an integral part of the evaluation and management of retinal disorders. Each imaging modality has its own unique capabilities and can show a different aspect or perspective of disease. Multimodal retinal imaging provides a wealth of substantive and insightful information; however, the integration of all this complex data can be overwhelming. We discuss the applications and the strengths and limitations of the many different retinal imaging tools that are approved for clinical use. These modalities include color fundus photography, widefield imaging, fundus autofluorescence, near infrared reflectance, optical coherence tomography angiography, and en face optical coherence tomography. We also cover the advantages and disadvantages of a multimodal approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSurvey of Ophthalmology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Color fundus photography
  • En-face optical coherence tomography
  • Fundus autofluorescence
  • Multimodal approach
  • Near infrared reflectance
  • Optical coherence tomography angiography
  • Widefield imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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