Advanced oxidation and disinfection processes for onsite net-zero greywater reuse: A review

Lucien W. Gassie, James D. Englehardt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Net-zero greywater (NZGW) reuse, or nearly closed-loop recycle of greywater for all original uses, can recover both water and its attendant hot-water thermal energy, while avoiding the installation and maintenance of a separate greywater sewer in residential areas. Such a system, if portable, could also provide wash water for remote emergency health care units. However, such greywater reuse engenders human contact with the recycled water, and hence superior treatment. The purpose of this paper is to review processes applicable to the mineralization of organics, including control of oxidative byproducts such as bromate, and maintenance of disinfection consistent with potable reuse guidelines, in NZGW systems. Specifically, TiO2-UV, UV-hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide-ozone, ozone-UV advanced oxidation processes, and UV, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, filtration, and chlorine disinfection processes were reviewed for performance, energy demand, environmental impact, and operational simplicity. Based on the literature reviewed, peroxone is the most energy-efficient process for organics mineralization. However, in portable applications where delivery of chemicals to the site is a concern, the UV-ozone process appears promising, at higher energy demand. In either case, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, or ED may be useful in controlling the bromide precursor in make-up water, and a minor side-stream of ozone may be used to prevent microbial regrowth in the treated water. Where energy is not paramount, UV-hydrogen peroxide and UV-TiO2 can be used to mineralize organics while avoiding bromate formation, but may require a secondary process to prevent microbial regrowth. Chlorine and ozone may be useful for maintenance of disinfection residual.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)384-399
Number of pages16
JournalWater Research
StatePublished - 2017


  • Advanced oxidation
  • Bromate control
  • Greywater reuse
  • Net-zero
  • Pathogen control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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