Adiposity, related biomarkers, and type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: The Diabetes Prevention Program

Pandora L. Wander, Costas A. Christophi, Maria Rosario G. Araneta, Edward J Boyko, Daniel A. Enquobahrie, Dana Dabelea, Ronald B. Goldberg, Steven E. Kahn, Catherine Kim, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, William C. Knowler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: This study investigated associations of adiposity and adiposity-related biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) among parous women. Methods: Among women in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) who reported a previous live birth, circulating biomarkers (leptin, adiponectin, sex hormone-binding globulin, and alanine aminotransferase; n = 1,711) were measured at enrollment (average: 12 years post partum). Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas at the L2-L3 region and the L3-L4 region were quantified by computed tomography (n = 477). Overall and stratified (by history of gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM]) adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were fit. Results: Alanine aminotransferase, L2-L3 VAT, and L3-L4 VAT were positively associated (hazard ratio [HR] for 1-SD increases: 1.073, p = 0.024; 1.251, p = 0.009; 1.272, p = 0.004, respectively), and adiponectin concentration was inversely associated with T2D (HR 0.762, p < 0.001). Whereas leptin concentration was not associated with T2D overall, in GDM-stratified models, a 1-SD higher leptin was positively associated with risk of T2D in women without GDM (HR: 1.126, p = 0.016) and inversely in women with a history of GDM (HR: 0.776, p = 0.013, interaction p = 0.002). Conclusions: Among parous women, alanine aminotransferase and VAT are positively associated with incident T2D, whereas adiponectin is inversely associated. Leptin is associated with higher risk of T2D in women with a history of GDM but a lower risk in women without a history of GDM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)221-228
Number of pages8
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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