Adhesion forces between individual ligand-receptor pairs

Ernst Ludwig Florin, Vincent T. Moy, Hermann E. Gaub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1685 Scopus citations


The adhesion force between the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever derivatized with avidin and agarose beads functionalized with biotin, desthiobiotin, or iminobiotin was measured. Under conditions that allowed only a limited number of molecular pairs to interact, the force required to separate tip and bead was found to be quantized in integer multiples of 160 ± 20 piconewtons for biotin and 85 ± 15 piconewtons for iminobiotin. The measured force quanta are interpreted as the unbinding forces of individual molecular pairs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)415-417
Number of pages3
Issue number5157
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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