Acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis is an uncommon but potentially severe complication of intraocular surgery. Acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis is a clinical diagnosis, which is then confirmed by culture of vitreous or aqueous. The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) provided valuable treatment guidelines which are still relevant today. However, visual outcomes are frequently poor, even after prompt and appropriate treatment. Endophthalmitis cannot be completely prevented, but its incidence can be significantly reduced with the use of preoperative povidone-iodine antisepsis and attention to risk factors. Intracameral antibiotics are gaining in popularity, especially in Europe, although their efficacy is controversial.
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