Acute diagnostic biomarkers for spinal cord injury: Review of the literature and preliminary research report

Shoji Yokobori, Zhiqun Zhang, Ahmed Moghieb, Stefania Mondello, Shyam Gajavelli, W. Dalton Dietrich, Helen Bramlett, Ronald L. Hayes, Michael Y. Wang, Kevin K.W. Wang, M. Ross Bullock

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


Objective Many efforts have been made to create new diagnostic technologies for use in the diagnosis of central nervous system injury. However, there is still no consensus for the use of biomarkers in clinical acute spinal cord injury (SCI). The aims of this review are (1) to evaluate the current status of neurochemical biomarkers and (2) to discuss their potential acute diagnostic role in SCI by reviewing the literature. Methods PubMed ( was searched up to 2012 to identify publications concerning diagnostic biomarkers in SCI. To support more knowledge, we also checked secondary references in the primarily retrieved literature. Results Neurofilaments, cleaved-Tau, microtubule-associated protein 2, myelin basic protein, neuron-specific enolase, S100β, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were identified as structural protein biomarkers in SCI by this review process. We could not find reports relating ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 and α-II spectrin breakdown products, which are widely researched in other central nervous system injuries. Therefore, we present our preliminary data relating to these two biomarkers. Some of biomarkers showed promising results for SCI diagnosis and outcome prediction; however, there were unresolved issues relating to accuracy and their accessibility. Conclusion Currently, there still are not many reports focused on diagnostic biomarkers in SCI. This fact warranted the need for greater efforts to innovate sensitive and reliable biomarkers for SCI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)867-878
Number of pages12
JournalWorld neurosurgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2015


  • Biomarker
  • Pathophysiology
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Acute diagnostic biomarkers for spinal cord injury: Review of the literature and preliminary research report'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this