Active surveillance; A reasonable management alternative for patients with prostate cancer: The Miami experience

Mark S. Soloway, Cynthia T. Soloway, Steve Williams, Rajinikanth Ayyathurai, Bruce Kava, Murugesan Manoharan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

161 Scopus citations


Study Type - Therapy (individual cohort study) Level of Evidence 2b OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcome of patients diagnosed with 'low-risk' prostate cancer managed by active surveillance (AS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 157 men with localized prostate cancer were followed on AS. The inclusion criteria for AS included: Gleason score of ≤6, a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of ≤15 ng/mL, stage ≤T2, low-volume disease and >12 months of follow-up. The follow-up was rigorous, with PSA tests and a digital rectal examination every 3 months for 2 years, and a repeat biopsy 6-12 months after the initial diagnosis and yearly when indicated. Continuance of AS was based on the PSA doubling time, re-biopsy score, Gleason score, tumour volume, stage progression and patient preference. RESULTS: In all 99 patients met the inclusion criteria; their mean age at diagnosis was 66 years, their mean PSA level 5.77 ng/mL and the mean follow-up 45.3 months. On initial repeat biopsy, 63% had no cancer and 34% had a Gleason sum of ≤6. Eight patients were treated (three with hormones; five with curative intent); two had radical prostatectomy (one had pT2c pNO Gleason 7 disease); three had radiotherapy. The probability is that 85% would remain treatment-free at 5 years; no patient died from prostate cancer. The PSA doubling time and clinical stage at diagnosis were predictive of progression. CONCLUSION: Patients who are followed on AS must be selected using narrowly defined inclusion criteria and closely followed with a standard regimen of PSA testing, digital rectal examination and repeat biopsy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-169
Number of pages5
JournalBJU International
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2008


  • Active surveillance
  • Follow-up protocol
  • Progression
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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