Activation and regulation of cellular inflammasomes: Gaps in our knowledge for central nervous system injury

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135 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The inflammasome is an intracellular multiprotein complex involved in the activation of caspase-1 and the processing of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. The inflammasome in the central nervous system (CNS) is involved in the generation of an innate immune inflammatory response through IL-1 cytokine release and in cell death through the process of pyroptosis. In this review, we consider the different types of inflammasomes (NLRP1, NLRP2, NLRP3, and AIM2) that have been described in CNS cells, namely neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Importantly, we focus on the role of the inflammasome after brain and spinal cord injury and cover the potential activators of the inflammasome after CNS injury such as adenosine triphosphate and DNA, and the therapeutic potential of targeting the inflammasome to improve outcomes after CNS trauma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-375
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Volume34
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2014

Fingerprint

Inflammasomes
Nervous System Trauma
Central Nervous System
Interleukin-1
Cytokines
Multiprotein Complexes
Caspase 1
Interleukin-18
Microglia
Spinal Cord Injuries
Innate Immunity
Astrocytes
Cell Death
Adenosine Triphosphate
Neurons
DNA
Brain

Keywords

  • brain injury; caspase-1
  • IL-1
  • inflammasome
  • spinal cord injury
  • stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology

Cite this

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abstract = "The inflammasome is an intracellular multiprotein complex involved in the activation of caspase-1 and the processing of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. The inflammasome in the central nervous system (CNS) is involved in the generation of an innate immune inflammatory response through IL-1 cytokine release and in cell death through the process of pyroptosis. In this review, we consider the different types of inflammasomes (NLRP1, NLRP2, NLRP3, and AIM2) that have been described in CNS cells, namely neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Importantly, we focus on the role of the inflammasome after brain and spinal cord injury and cover the potential activators of the inflammasome after CNS injury such as adenosine triphosphate and DNA, and the therapeutic potential of targeting the inflammasome to improve outcomes after CNS trauma.",
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