Most male breast problems are benign, and men with typical symptoms of gynecomastia or pseudogynecomastia do not usually need imaging. When a differentiation between benign disease and breast cancer cannot be made on the basis of clinical findings or when the clinical findings are suspicious for breast cancer, imaging is indicated. Mammography is useful in both identifying cancer and obviating the need for biopsy in patients for whom a benign mammographic impression confirms the clinical impression. However, because of the relationship of breast cancer to increasing age, age-based protocols that do not include mammography have been developed. For men with an indeterminate palpable mass, begin with ultrasound if the patient is <25 years of age, because breast cancer is highly unlikely. Mammography should be performed if ultrasound is suspicious. For men â‰¥ 25 years of age or having a highly concerning physical examination, usually begin with mammography; ultrasound is useful if mammography is inconclusive or suspicious. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
- Appropriateness criteria
- breast cancer
- male breast
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging