Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Pyridostigmine Bromide Attenuates Gut Pathology and Bacterial Dysbiosis in a Murine Model of Ulcerative Colitis

Shashi P. Singh, Hitendra S. Chand, Santanu Banerjee, Hemant Agarwal, Veena Raizada, Sabita Roy, Mohan Sopori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a Th2 inflammatory bowel disease characterized by increased IL-5 and IL-13 expression, eosinophilic/neutrophilic infiltration, decreased mucus production, impaired epithelial barrier, and bacterial dysbiosis of the colon. Acetylcholine and nicotine stimulate mucus production and suppress Th2 inflammation through nicotinic receptors in lungs but UC is rarely observed in smokers and the mechanism of the protection is unclear. Methods: In order to evaluate whether acetylcholine can ameliorate UC-associated pathologies, we employed a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC-like conditions, and a group of mice were treated with Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) to increase acetylcholine availability. The effects on colonic tissue morphology, Th2 inflammatory factors, MUC2 mucin, and gut microbiota were analyzed. Results: DSS challenge damaged the murine colonic architecture, reduced the MUC2 mucin and the tight-junction protein ZO-1. The PB treatment significantly attenuated these DSS-induced responses along with the eosinophilic infiltration and the pro-Th2 inflammatory factors. Moreover, PB inhibited the DSS-induced loss of commensal Clostridia and Flavobacteria, and the gain of pathogenic Erysipelotrichia and Fusobacteria. Conclusions: Together, these data suggest that in colons of a murine model, PB promotes MUC2 synthesis, suppresses Th2 inflammation and attenuates bacterial dysbiosis therefore, PB has a therapeutic potential in UC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDigestive Diseases and Sciences
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

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Dysbiosis
Pyridostigmine Bromide
Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Dextran Sulfate
Ulcerative Colitis
Pathology
Acetylcholine
Mucins
Mucus
Colon
Fusobacteria
Zonula Occludens-1 Protein
Inflammation
Flavobacterium
Interleukin-13
Clostridium
Interleukin-5
Nicotinic Receptors
Nicotine
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Keywords

  • Acetylcholine
  • Bacterial dysbiosis
  • Dextran sodium sulfate
  • Pyridostigmine bromide
  • Ulcerative colitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Pyridostigmine Bromide Attenuates Gut Pathology and Bacterial Dysbiosis in a Murine Model of Ulcerative Colitis. / Singh, Shashi P.; Chand, Hitendra S.; Banerjee, Santanu; Agarwal, Hemant; Raizada, Veena; Roy, Sabita; Sopori, Mohan.

In: Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a Th2 inflammatory bowel disease characterized by increased IL-5 and IL-13 expression, eosinophilic/neutrophilic infiltration, decreased mucus production, impaired epithelial barrier, and bacterial dysbiosis of the colon. Acetylcholine and nicotine stimulate mucus production and suppress Th2 inflammation through nicotinic receptors in lungs but UC is rarely observed in smokers and the mechanism of the protection is unclear. Methods: In order to evaluate whether acetylcholine can ameliorate UC-associated pathologies, we employed a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC-like conditions, and a group of mice were treated with Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) to increase acetylcholine availability. The effects on colonic tissue morphology, Th2 inflammatory factors, MUC2 mucin, and gut microbiota were analyzed. Results: DSS challenge damaged the murine colonic architecture, reduced the MUC2 mucin and the tight-junction protein ZO-1. The PB treatment significantly attenuated these DSS-induced responses along with the eosinophilic infiltration and the pro-Th2 inflammatory factors. Moreover, PB inhibited the DSS-induced loss of commensal Clostridia and Flavobacteria, and the gain of pathogenic Erysipelotrichia and Fusobacteria. Conclusions: Together, these data suggest that in colons of a murine model, PB promotes MUC2 synthesis, suppresses Th2 inflammation and attenuates bacterial dysbiosis therefore, PB has a therapeutic potential in UC.",
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AU - Singh, Shashi P.

AU - Chand, Hitendra S.

AU - Banerjee, Santanu

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AU - Raizada, Veena

AU - Roy, Sabita

AU - Sopori, Mohan

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N2 - Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a Th2 inflammatory bowel disease characterized by increased IL-5 and IL-13 expression, eosinophilic/neutrophilic infiltration, decreased mucus production, impaired epithelial barrier, and bacterial dysbiosis of the colon. Acetylcholine and nicotine stimulate mucus production and suppress Th2 inflammation through nicotinic receptors in lungs but UC is rarely observed in smokers and the mechanism of the protection is unclear. Methods: In order to evaluate whether acetylcholine can ameliorate UC-associated pathologies, we employed a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC-like conditions, and a group of mice were treated with Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) to increase acetylcholine availability. The effects on colonic tissue morphology, Th2 inflammatory factors, MUC2 mucin, and gut microbiota were analyzed. Results: DSS challenge damaged the murine colonic architecture, reduced the MUC2 mucin and the tight-junction protein ZO-1. The PB treatment significantly attenuated these DSS-induced responses along with the eosinophilic infiltration and the pro-Th2 inflammatory factors. Moreover, PB inhibited the DSS-induced loss of commensal Clostridia and Flavobacteria, and the gain of pathogenic Erysipelotrichia and Fusobacteria. Conclusions: Together, these data suggest that in colons of a murine model, PB promotes MUC2 synthesis, suppresses Th2 inflammation and attenuates bacterial dysbiosis therefore, PB has a therapeutic potential in UC.

AB - Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a Th2 inflammatory bowel disease characterized by increased IL-5 and IL-13 expression, eosinophilic/neutrophilic infiltration, decreased mucus production, impaired epithelial barrier, and bacterial dysbiosis of the colon. Acetylcholine and nicotine stimulate mucus production and suppress Th2 inflammation through nicotinic receptors in lungs but UC is rarely observed in smokers and the mechanism of the protection is unclear. Methods: In order to evaluate whether acetylcholine can ameliorate UC-associated pathologies, we employed a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC-like conditions, and a group of mice were treated with Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) to increase acetylcholine availability. The effects on colonic tissue morphology, Th2 inflammatory factors, MUC2 mucin, and gut microbiota were analyzed. Results: DSS challenge damaged the murine colonic architecture, reduced the MUC2 mucin and the tight-junction protein ZO-1. The PB treatment significantly attenuated these DSS-induced responses along with the eosinophilic infiltration and the pro-Th2 inflammatory factors. Moreover, PB inhibited the DSS-induced loss of commensal Clostridia and Flavobacteria, and the gain of pathogenic Erysipelotrichia and Fusobacteria. Conclusions: Together, these data suggest that in colons of a murine model, PB promotes MUC2 synthesis, suppresses Th2 inflammation and attenuates bacterial dysbiosis therefore, PB has a therapeutic potential in UC.

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