Academic Consequences and Longitudinal Stability of Behavioral Subtypes of Learning Disabled Children

James D. McKinney, Deborah L. Speece

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Forty-seven school-identified learning disabled (LD) students who had been classified into seven behavioral subtypes by a technique of hierarchical cluster analysis were followed longitudinally for 3 years. Classroom teachers and special-education teachers rated children each year on measures of independence-dependence, task orientation-distractibility, extraversion-introversion, and considerateness-hostility. Also, measures of reading and mathematics achievement were taken each year. Children with attention problems and those who presented problem behaviors in the classroom during the first and second grades showed poorer achievement outcomes in later grades, compared with those who did not present atypical behaviors and those who presented a withdrawn pattern of behavior. Although children tended to switch subtype membership over 3 years, the proportion of LD children in adaptive and maladaptive subtypes was similar at Years 1 and 3, as determined by classroom teachers' ratings in subsequent years. Developmental changes in subtype membership were discussed with respect to the effects of special-education services and the social-emotional sequelae that have been associated with school failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)365-372
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1986

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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