A surface ocean CO2 reference network, SOCONET and associated marine boundary layer CO2 measurements

Rik Wanninkhof, Penelope A. Pickers, Abdirahman M. Omar, Adrienne Sutton, Akihiko Murata, Are Olsen, Britton B. Stephens, Bronte Tilbrook, David Munro, Denis Pierrot, Gregor Rehder, J. Magdalena Santana-Casiano, Jens D. Müller, Joaquin Trinanes, Kathy Tedesco, Kevin O'Brien, Kim Currie, Leticia Barbero, Maciej Telszewski, Mario HoppemaMasao Ishii, Melchor González-Dávila, Nicholas R. Bates, Nicolas Metzl, Parvadha Suntharalingam, Richard A. Feely, Shin ichiro Nakaoka, Siv K. Lauvset, Taro Takahashi, Tobias Steinhoff, Ute Schuster

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The Surface Ocean CO2 NETwork (SOCONET) and atmospheric Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) CO2 measurements from ships and buoys focus on the operational aspects of measurements of CO2 in both the ocean surface and atmospheric MBLs. The goal is to provide accurate pCO2 data to within 2 micro atmosphere (μatm) for surface ocean and 0.2 parts per million (ppm) for MBL measurements following rigorous best practices, calibration and intercomparison procedures. Platforms and data will be tracked in near real-time and final quality-controlled data will be provided to the community within a year. The network, involving partners worldwide, will aid in production of important products such as maps of monthly resolved surface ocean CO2 and air-sea CO2 flux measurements. These products and other derivatives using surface ocean and MBL CO2 data, such as surface ocean pH maps and MBL CO2 maps, will be of high value for policy assessments and socio-economic decisions regarding the role of the ocean in sequestering anthropogenic CO2 and how this uptake is impacting ocean health by ocean acidification. SOCONET has an open ocean emphasis but will work with regional (coastal) networks. It will liaise with intergovernmental science organizations such as Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), and the joint committee for and ocean and marine meteorology (JCOMM). Here we describe the details of this emerging network and its proposed operations and practices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number400
JournalFrontiers in Marine Science
Issue numberJUL
StatePublished - 2019


  • Best practices
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Fluxes
  • Network
  • Oceanography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Ocean Engineering


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