A staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma: Prognostic factors in Ugandan patients

Aron Primack, Charles L. Vogel, Sebastian K. Kyalwazi, John L. Ziegler, Richard Simon, Peter P. Anthony

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


A staging scheme for hepatocellular carcinoma was presented at an International Symposium on Liver Cancer in Kampala, Uganda in 1971. Historical, clinical, and laboratory aspects of that staging scheme were examined for prognostic significance in 72 untreated patients with this disease studied at the Uganda Cancer Institute. The median survival for the entire group was 1 mth. The presence of a serum bilirubin concentration of greater than 2 mg/100 ml or weight loss greater than 25% of body weight were the poorest prognostic features. Other factors with prognostic significance were visible abdominal collateral circulation, ascites, tumor differentiation, and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, SGOT, alpha fetoprotein, and proline hydroxylase. A modified staging scheme is presented which defines three prognostically different groups of Ugandan patients. It is hoped this staging scheme will serve as a stimulus for analysis of similar prognostic features in other populations of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1357-1364
Number of pages8
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1975
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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