A soluble adenylyl cyclase form targets to axonemes and rescues beat regulation in soluble adenylyl cyclase knockout mice

Xi Chen, Nathalie Baumlin, Jochen Buck, Lonny R. Levin, Nevis L. Fregien, Matthias A Salathe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ciliary beating is important for effective mucociliary clearance. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates ciliary beating, and a roughly 50-kD sAC variant is expressed in axonemes. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells express multiple sAC splice variants: full-length sAC; variants with catalytic domain 1 (C1) deletions; and variants with partial C1. One variant, sACex5v2-ex12v2, contains two alternative splices creating new exons 5 (ex5v2) and 12 (ex12v2), encoding a roughly 45-kD protein. It is therefore similar in size to ciliary sAC. The variant increases in expression upon ciliogenesis during differentiation at the air-liquid interface. When expressed in NHBE cells, this variant was targeted to cilia. Exons 5v2-7 were important for ciliary targeting, whereas exons 2-4 prevented it. In vitro, cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2 (containing C1 and C2) was the only variant producing cAMP. Ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 was not catalytically active. Airway epithelial cells isolated from wild-type mice revealed sAC-dependent ciliary beat frequency (CBF) regulation, analogous to NHBE cells: CBF rescue from HCO3-/CO2-mediated intracellular acidification was sensitive to the sAC inhibitor, KH7. Compared with wild type, sAC C2 knockout (KO) mice revealed lower CBF baseline, and the HCO3-/CO2-mediated CBF decrease was not inhibited by KH7, confirming lack of functional sAC. Human sACex5v2-ex12v2 was targeted to cilia and sACex2-ex12v2 to the cytoplasm in these KO mice. Introduction of the ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 variant, but not the cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2, restored functional sAC activity in C2 KO mice. Thus, we show, for the first time, a mammalian axonemal targeting sequence that localizes a sAC variant to cilia to regulate CBF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)750-760
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Volume51
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Fingerprint

Axoneme
Adenylyl Cyclases
Knockout Mice
Cilia
Epithelial Cells
Exons
Catalytic Domain
Mucociliary Clearance
Acidification
Cytoplasm
Air

Keywords

  • Adenylyl cyclase
  • Alternative splicing
  • CAMP
  • Cilia
  • Protein targeting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry

Cite this

A soluble adenylyl cyclase form targets to axonemes and rescues beat regulation in soluble adenylyl cyclase knockout mice. / Chen, Xi; Baumlin, Nathalie; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.; Fregien, Nevis L.; Salathe, Matthias A.

In: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol. 51, No. 6, 01.01.2014, p. 750-760.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Ciliary beating is important for effective mucociliary clearance. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates ciliary beating, and a roughly 50-kD sAC variant is expressed in axonemes. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells express multiple sAC splice variants: full-length sAC; variants with catalytic domain 1 (C1) deletions; and variants with partial C1. One variant, sACex5v2-ex12v2, contains two alternative splices creating new exons 5 (ex5v2) and 12 (ex12v2), encoding a roughly 45-kD protein. It is therefore similar in size to ciliary sAC. The variant increases in expression upon ciliogenesis during differentiation at the air-liquid interface. When expressed in NHBE cells, this variant was targeted to cilia. Exons 5v2-7 were important for ciliary targeting, whereas exons 2-4 prevented it. In vitro, cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2 (containing C1 and C2) was the only variant producing cAMP. Ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 was not catalytically active. Airway epithelial cells isolated from wild-type mice revealed sAC-dependent ciliary beat frequency (CBF) regulation, analogous to NHBE cells: CBF rescue from HCO3-/CO2-mediated intracellular acidification was sensitive to the sAC inhibitor, KH7. Compared with wild type, sAC C2 knockout (KO) mice revealed lower CBF baseline, and the HCO3-/CO2-mediated CBF decrease was not inhibited by KH7, confirming lack of functional sAC. Human sACex5v2-ex12v2 was targeted to cilia and sACex2-ex12v2 to the cytoplasm in these KO mice. Introduction of the ciliary sACex5v2-ex12v2 variant, but not the cytoplasmic sACex2-ex12v2, restored functional sAC activity in C2 KO mice. Thus, we show, for the first time, a mammalian axonemal targeting sequence that localizes a sAC variant to cilia to regulate CBF.",
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