A single institution experience with proximal junctional kyphosis in the context of existing classification schemes – Systematic review

Turki Elarjani, Gregory W. Basil, Michael Z. Kader, Victoria Pinilla Escobar, Timur Urakov, Michael Y. Wang, Allan D. Levi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Proximal junctional kyphosis is a kyphotic deformity following spine instrumentation, predominantly seen in scoliosis patients. There have been previous attempts to develop classification schema of PJK. We analyzed the factors contributing to PJK based upon our own clinical experience with the goal of developing a clinical guidance tool which took into account both etiology and mechanism of failure. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all re-operation thoracolumbar surgeries at a single institution over a 14-year period. Patients with PJK were identified and categorized based upon the etiology, mechanism of failure, and an indication of revision. Next, we conducted a systematic review on articles emphasizing a classification system for PJK. Results: Fourteen PJK patients were identified out of 121 patients who required revision spine surgery. The average age was 64.9 ± 10.2 years, with 10 males (71%) and 4 females (29%). Three primary etiologies were identified: 6/14 (47%) overcorrection, 6/14 (47%) osteopenia, and 2/14 (14%) ligamentous disruption. The mechanism of failure was likewise divided into three categories: 9/14 (64%) compression fracture, 1/14 (7%) hardware failure, and 4/14 (29%) disc degeneration. The relationship between osteopenia and the development of a compression fracture leading to PJK was statistically significant (p = 0.031). Conclusion: There are multiple current classification systems for PJK. Our study findings were in line with previously published literature and suggest the need for a future classification system combining both etiology, mechanism of failure, and severity of disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-156
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Neuroscience
Volume88
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Kyphosis
  • Proximal Junctional Failure
  • Proximal Junctional Kyphosis
  • Scoliosis Surgery
  • Spine Instrumentation Failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

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