A serologic follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of post-vaccination hepatitis in the United States Army

L. B. Seeff, G. W. Beebe, J. H. Hoofnagle, J. E. Norman, Z. Buskell-Bales, J. G. Waggoner, N. Kaplowitz, R. S. Koff, J. L. Petrini, Eugene R Schiff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

181 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An epidemic of icteric hepatitis in 1942 affected approximately 50,000 U.S. Army personnel. This outbreak was linked to specific lots of yellow-fever vaccine stabilized with human serum. To identify the responsible virus and the consequences of the epidemic, during 1985 we interviewed and serologically screened 597 veterans who had been in the army in 1942. These subjects were selected from three groups. Group I consisted of patients who had received the implicated vaccine and had jaundice; Group II had received the implicated vaccine but remained well; Group III had received a new, serum-free vaccine, with no subsequent jaundice. Ninety-seven percent of Group I, 76 percent of Group II, and 13 percent of Group III were positive for antibodies to hepatitis B virus. Only one subject had hepatitis B surface antigen, for a carrier rate of 0.26 percent among recipients to the implicated vaccine. The prevalence of hepatitis A antibody was similar in all three groups, and no subject had antibody to hepatitis delta virus. We conclude that hepatitis B caused the outbreak, that about 330,000 persons may have been infected, that the hepatitis B virus carrier state was a rare consequence, and that the outbreak induced hepatitis B antibodies that appear to persist for life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)965-970
Number of pages6
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume316
Issue number16
StatePublished - May 29 1987
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Hepatitis
Vaccination
Vaccines
Disease Outbreaks
Hepatitis B Antibodies
Jaundice
Yellow Fever Vaccine
Hepatitis A Antibodies
Hepatitis Delta Virus
Carrier State
Military Personnel
Veterans
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Hepatitis B
Serum
Hepatitis B virus
Viruses
Antibodies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Seeff, L. B., Beebe, G. W., Hoofnagle, J. H., Norman, J. E., Buskell-Bales, Z., Waggoner, J. G., ... Schiff, E. R. (1987). A serologic follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of post-vaccination hepatitis in the United States Army. New England Journal of Medicine, 316(16), 965-970.

A serologic follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of post-vaccination hepatitis in the United States Army. / Seeff, L. B.; Beebe, G. W.; Hoofnagle, J. H.; Norman, J. E.; Buskell-Bales, Z.; Waggoner, J. G.; Kaplowitz, N.; Koff, R. S.; Petrini, J. L.; Schiff, Eugene R.

In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 316, No. 16, 29.05.1987, p. 965-970.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Seeff, LB, Beebe, GW, Hoofnagle, JH, Norman, JE, Buskell-Bales, Z, Waggoner, JG, Kaplowitz, N, Koff, RS, Petrini, JL & Schiff, ER 1987, 'A serologic follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of post-vaccination hepatitis in the United States Army', New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 316, no. 16, pp. 965-970.
Seeff LB, Beebe GW, Hoofnagle JH, Norman JE, Buskell-Bales Z, Waggoner JG et al. A serologic follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of post-vaccination hepatitis in the United States Army. New England Journal of Medicine. 1987 May 29;316(16):965-970.
Seeff, L. B. ; Beebe, G. W. ; Hoofnagle, J. H. ; Norman, J. E. ; Buskell-Bales, Z. ; Waggoner, J. G. ; Kaplowitz, N. ; Koff, R. S. ; Petrini, J. L. ; Schiff, Eugene R. / A serologic follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of post-vaccination hepatitis in the United States Army. In: New England Journal of Medicine. 1987 ; Vol. 316, No. 16. pp. 965-970.
@article{acbfd4a7a2f3419c8c8fd338f37aaff5,
title = "A serologic follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of post-vaccination hepatitis in the United States Army",
abstract = "An epidemic of icteric hepatitis in 1942 affected approximately 50,000 U.S. Army personnel. This outbreak was linked to specific lots of yellow-fever vaccine stabilized with human serum. To identify the responsible virus and the consequences of the epidemic, during 1985 we interviewed and serologically screened 597 veterans who had been in the army in 1942. These subjects were selected from three groups. Group I consisted of patients who had received the implicated vaccine and had jaundice; Group II had received the implicated vaccine but remained well; Group III had received a new, serum-free vaccine, with no subsequent jaundice. Ninety-seven percent of Group I, 76 percent of Group II, and 13 percent of Group III were positive for antibodies to hepatitis B virus. Only one subject had hepatitis B surface antigen, for a carrier rate of 0.26 percent among recipients to the implicated vaccine. The prevalence of hepatitis A antibody was similar in all three groups, and no subject had antibody to hepatitis delta virus. We conclude that hepatitis B caused the outbreak, that about 330,000 persons may have been infected, that the hepatitis B virus carrier state was a rare consequence, and that the outbreak induced hepatitis B antibodies that appear to persist for life.",
author = "Seeff, {L. B.} and Beebe, {G. W.} and Hoofnagle, {J. H.} and Norman, {J. E.} and Z. Buskell-Bales and Waggoner, {J. G.} and N. Kaplowitz and Koff, {R. S.} and Petrini, {J. L.} and Schiff, {Eugene R}",
year = "1987",
month = "5",
day = "29",
language = "English",
volume = "316",
pages = "965--970",
journal = "New England Journal of Medicine",
issn = "0028-4793",
publisher = "Massachussetts Medical Society",
number = "16",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A serologic follow-up of the 1942 epidemic of post-vaccination hepatitis in the United States Army

AU - Seeff, L. B.

AU - Beebe, G. W.

AU - Hoofnagle, J. H.

AU - Norman, J. E.

AU - Buskell-Bales, Z.

AU - Waggoner, J. G.

AU - Kaplowitz, N.

AU - Koff, R. S.

AU - Petrini, J. L.

AU - Schiff, Eugene R

PY - 1987/5/29

Y1 - 1987/5/29

N2 - An epidemic of icteric hepatitis in 1942 affected approximately 50,000 U.S. Army personnel. This outbreak was linked to specific lots of yellow-fever vaccine stabilized with human serum. To identify the responsible virus and the consequences of the epidemic, during 1985 we interviewed and serologically screened 597 veterans who had been in the army in 1942. These subjects were selected from three groups. Group I consisted of patients who had received the implicated vaccine and had jaundice; Group II had received the implicated vaccine but remained well; Group III had received a new, serum-free vaccine, with no subsequent jaundice. Ninety-seven percent of Group I, 76 percent of Group II, and 13 percent of Group III were positive for antibodies to hepatitis B virus. Only one subject had hepatitis B surface antigen, for a carrier rate of 0.26 percent among recipients to the implicated vaccine. The prevalence of hepatitis A antibody was similar in all three groups, and no subject had antibody to hepatitis delta virus. We conclude that hepatitis B caused the outbreak, that about 330,000 persons may have been infected, that the hepatitis B virus carrier state was a rare consequence, and that the outbreak induced hepatitis B antibodies that appear to persist for life.

AB - An epidemic of icteric hepatitis in 1942 affected approximately 50,000 U.S. Army personnel. This outbreak was linked to specific lots of yellow-fever vaccine stabilized with human serum. To identify the responsible virus and the consequences of the epidemic, during 1985 we interviewed and serologically screened 597 veterans who had been in the army in 1942. These subjects were selected from three groups. Group I consisted of patients who had received the implicated vaccine and had jaundice; Group II had received the implicated vaccine but remained well; Group III had received a new, serum-free vaccine, with no subsequent jaundice. Ninety-seven percent of Group I, 76 percent of Group II, and 13 percent of Group III were positive for antibodies to hepatitis B virus. Only one subject had hepatitis B surface antigen, for a carrier rate of 0.26 percent among recipients to the implicated vaccine. The prevalence of hepatitis A antibody was similar in all three groups, and no subject had antibody to hepatitis delta virus. We conclude that hepatitis B caused the outbreak, that about 330,000 persons may have been infected, that the hepatitis B virus carrier state was a rare consequence, and that the outbreak induced hepatitis B antibodies that appear to persist for life.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023125896&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023125896&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 2436048

AN - SCOPUS:0023125896

VL - 316

SP - 965

EP - 970

JO - New England Journal of Medicine

JF - New England Journal of Medicine

SN - 0028-4793

IS - 16

ER -