A phase 1B clinical study of combretastatin a1 diphosphate (OXI4503) and cytarabine (ARA-C) in combination (OXA) for patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia

Fatih M. Uckun, Christopher R. Cogle, Tara L. Lin, Sanjive Qazi, Vuong N. Trieu, Gary Schiller, Justin M. Watts

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Combretastatin A1 (OXi4503) is a dual-function drug with vascular disrupting and cytotoxic properties that has exhibited single-agent anti-leukemia activity in murine xenograft models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in a prior Phase 1A clinical study for relapsed/refractory (R/R) AML. The purpose of the present multicenter Phase 1B study was to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and safety profile of OXi4503 and cytarabine (ARA-C) administered in combination (OXA). At four centers, 29 patients with R/R AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with OXA. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were febrile neutropenia (28%), hypertension (17%), thrombocytopenia (17%), and anemia (14%). There were no treatment-emergent grade 5 AEs. Drug-related serious adverse events (SAEs) developed in 4/29 patients (14%) and included febrile neutropenia (N = 2), pneumonia/acute respiratory failure (N = 1), and hypotension (N = 1). 9.76 mg/m2 was defined as the MTD of OXi4503 when administered in combination with 1 g/m2 ARA-C. In 26 evaluable AML patients, there were 2 complete remissions (CR), 2 complete remissions with incomplete count recovery (CRi) and one partial response (PR), for an overall response rate (ORR) of 19%. The median overall survival (OS) time for the four patients who achieved a CR/CRi was 528 days (95% CI: 434–NA), which was significantly longer than the median OS time of 113 days (95% CI: 77–172) for the remaining 22 patients who did not achieve a CR/CRi (Log Rank Chi Square = 11.8, p-value = 0.0006). The safety and early evidence of efficacy of the OXA regimen in R/R AML patients warrant further investigation in a Phase 2 clinical study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number74
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2020



  • AML
  • Clinical study
  • Combretastatin
  • Leukemia
  • OXA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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