Thyroid hormone synthesis requires the presence of iodide. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is a glycoprotein that mediates the active uptake of iodide from the blood stream into the thyroid grand. NIS defects due to SLC5A5 gene mutations are known to cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The proposita is a 28-year-old female whose origin is North Sudan where neonatal screening for CH is not available. She presented with severe constipation and a goiter at the age of 40 days. Laboratory testing confirmed CH, and she was started on levothyroxine. Presumably due to the delayed treatment, the patient developed mental retardation. Her younger sister presented with a goiter, tongue protrusion, and umbilical hernia, and the youngest brother was also diagnosed with CH based on a thyrotropin level >100 μIU/mL at the age of 22 days and 8 days, respectively. The two siblings were treated with levothyroxine and had normal development. Their consanguineous parents had no history of thyroid disorders. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proposita. This identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in the SLC5A5 gene - c.1042T>G, p.Y348D - which was subsequently confirmed by Sanger sequencing. All affected children were homozygous for the same mutation, and their unaffected mother was heterozygous. The NIS protein is composed of 13 transmembrane segments (TMS), an extracellular amino-terminus, and an intracellular carboxy-terminus. The mutation is located in the TMS IX, which has the most β-OH group-containing amino acids (serine and threonine), which is implicated in Na+ binding and translocation. In conclusion, a novel homozygous missense mutation in the SLC5A5 gene was identified in this Sudanese family with CH. The mutation is located in the TMS IX of the NIS protein, which is essential for NIS function. Low iodine intake in Sudan is considered to affect the severity of hypothyroidism in patients.
- sodium-iodide symporter-novel mutation-congenital hypothyroidism
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism