Expression profiling by DNA microarray analysis has provided insights into molecular alterations that underpin cancer progression and metastasis. Although differential expression of microarray-defined probes can be related to numerical or structural chromosomal alterations, it is unclear if such changes are also clustered in distinct chromosomes or genomic regions and whether chromosomal alterations always reflect changes in gene expression. Here we apply the dChip algorithm and a novel technique to test the hypothesis that expression changes occurring as a function of tumor progression and metastasis are nonrandomly distributed. Expression profiling of a human xenograft model of lung metastasis phenotype indicates that chromosomes 2, 11, and 20 contain higher percentages of differentially expressed genes ( P < .05). Furthermore, we show that a number of differentially expressed probes mapped to chromosome 17q, defining the existence of an expression "hot spot" corresponding to an area of gain determined by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Interestingly, other areas of gains detected by CGH were not associated with expression hot spots. In summary, we show that gene expression changes during bladder cancer lung metastasis occur nonrandomly in specific chromosomes and intrachromosomal locations.
- Bladder neoplasms
- Comparative genomic hybridization
- Gene expression
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research