Introduction: Arteriovenous (AV) access thrombosis remains 1 of the most troubling AV access–related complications affecting hemodialysis patients. It necessitates an urgent and occasionally complicated thrombectomy procedure and increases the risk of AV access loss. AV access stenosis is found in the majority of thrombosed AV accesses. The routine use of AV access surveillance for the early detection and management of stenosis to reduce the thrombosis rate remains controversial. Methods: We have conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing the standard of care coupled with ultrasound dilution technique (UDT) flow measurement monthly surveillance with the standard of care alone. Results: We prospectively randomized 436 patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG) using cluster (shift) randomization to surveillance and control groups. There were no significant differences in the baseline demographic data between the 2 groups, except for ethnicity (P = 0.017). Patients were followed on average for 15.2 months. There were significantly less per-patient thrombotic events (Poisson rate) in the surveillance group (0.12/patient) compared with the control group (0.23/patient) (P = 0.012). There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of procedures between the 2 groups, irrespective of whether thrombectomy procedures were included or excluded, and no statistically significant differences in the rate of or time to the first thrombotic event or the number of catheters placed due to thrombosis. Conclusion: The use of UDT flow measurement monthly AV access surveillance in this multicenter randomized controlled trial reduced the per-patient thrombotic events without significantly increasing the total number of angiographic procedures. Even though there is a trend, surveillance did not reduce the first thrombotic event rate.
- arteriovenous access blood flow
- arteriovenous access thrombosis
- arteriovenous fistula
- arteriovenous graft
- hemodialysis access surveillance
- ultrasound dilution technique
ASJC Scopus subject areas