Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy and has a strong propensity for fatal metastasis. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of uveal melanoma are revolutionizing our understanding of this cancer and the care of patients. The development of a new molecular classification of uveal melanoma based on a widely available 15-gene expression profile now allows patients at high risk of metastasis to be identified early so that individualized management can be offered. The recent discovery of major driver mutations in uveal melanoma provide a rational basis for development of new targeted therapies. Taken together, these advances are transforming our understanding and management of uveal melanoma with the ultimate goal of improving patient outcomes.
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