A modified CAIDE risk score as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in older adults

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3 Scopus citations


Background: Although an efficacious dementia-risk score system, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) was derived using midlife risk factors in a population with low educational attainment that does not reflect today's US population, and requires laboratory biomarkers, which are not always available. Objective: Develop and validate a modified CAIDE (mCAIDE) system and test its ability to predict presence, severity, and etiology of cognitive impairment in older adults. Methods: Population consisted of 449 participants in dementia research (N = 230; community sample; 67.9±10.0 years old, 29.6%male, 13.7±4.1 years education) or receiving dementia clinical services (N = 219; clinical sample; 74.3±9.8 years old, 50.2%male, 15.5±2.6 years education). The mCAIDE, which includes self-reported and performance-based rather than blood-derived measures, was developed in the community sample and tested in the independent clinical sample. Validity against Framingham, Hachinski, and CAIDE risk scores was assessed. Results: Higher mCAIDE quartiles were associated with lower performance on global and domain-specific cognitive tests. Each one-point increase in mCAIDE increased the odds of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by up to 65%, those of AD by 69%, and those for non-AD dementia by > 85%, with highest scores in cases with vascular etiologies. Being in the highest mCAIDE risk group improved ability to discriminate dementia from MCI and controls and MCI from controls, with a cut-off of ≥7 points offering the highest sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Conclusion: mCAIDE is a robust indicator of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling seniors, which can discriminate well between dementia severity including MCI versus controls. The mCAIDE may be a valuable tool for case ascertainment in research studies, helping flag primary care patients for cognitive testing, and identify those in need of lifestyle interventions for symptomatic control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1755-1768
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2021


  • case discrimination
  • cognitive impairment
  • dementia risk scores
  • dementia screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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