A model for safe transport of critical patients in unmanned drones with a ‘watch’ style continuous anesthesia sensor

Ahmed Hasnain Jalal, Yogeswaran Umasankar, Fraker Christopher, Ernesto A. Pretto, Shekhar Bhansali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


We envision unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for rapid evacuation of critically-ill patients from hazardous locations to health care facilities in safe zones. For safety, medical teams accompany patients to monitor vital signs and titrate anesthesia dose during transport. UAV transports would require continuous automated remote monitoring of both vital signs and of sedative dose to be feasible and safe. Volatile anesthetics (isoflurane) are the only anesthetic agents that can be monitored continuously with infrared spectroscopy (IR) devices; but unsuitable for transport. Our objective is to devise a safe UAV transport protocol incorporating novel technology for gas monitoring. Our group has developed and tested a miniaturized wearable fuel cell sensor that can detect isoflurane gas vapors as low as 40 ppm (within therapeutic range) with a sensitivity of 0.0112 nA ppm−1 cm−2. Ambient signal interference was resolved by principal component analysis (PCA). Data variance of 1st and 2nd principal components was 88.68% and 11.31%, respectively. The PCA regression model reported here can determine accurate Isoflurane concentrations. Electronic IoT platform has been built constituting micro-fuel cell, miniaturized electronic components with Bluetooth. This wearable sensor can be incorporated into a comprehensive life support system for casualty evacuation in conjunction with autonomous UAV emergency medical operations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)B3071-B3077
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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