A Management Tool for Evaluating Police Use of Force: An Application of the Force Factor

William Terrill, Geoffrey P. Alpert, Roger G Dunham, Michael R. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Scopus citations


Collecting and using data on police use of force is a complex issue. The process the authors suggest applies the force factor methodology to understanding police use of force relative to suspect resistance in interactive and sequential encounters. Agencies that adopt the force factor approach will learn about their officers, supervisors, and encounters with the public they serve. Although this process is fairly complex and may be difficult to implement, it will provide important information to agencies and the public.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-171
Number of pages22
JournalPolice Quarterly
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2003



  • citizen resistance
  • excessive force
  • force continuum
  • police force
  • resistance force comparative scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Law

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