A Longitudinal Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses Among People With HIV

Maria L. Alcaide, Nicholas F. Nogueira, Ana S. Salazar, Emily K. Montgomerie, Violeta J. Rodriguez, Patricia D. Raccamarich, Irma T. Barreto, Angela McGaugh, Mark E. Sharkey, Alejandro M. Mantero, Allan E. Rodriguez, Laura Beauchamps, Deborah L. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The concentration and duration of antibodies (Ab) to SARS-CoV-2 infection predicts the severity of the disease and the clinical outcomes. Older people and those with HIV have impaired immune responses, worse outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and lower antibody responses after viral infection and vaccination. This study evaluated an Ab response to SARS-CoV-2 in people with HIV (PWH) and without HIV (HIV-) and its association with age. Methods: A total of 23 COVID+PWH and 21 COVID+HIV- participants were followed longitudinally for 6 months post-mild COVID-19. Immunoglobin G (IgG) and immunoglobin M (IgM) Ab responses were measured by an in-house developed ELISA. Time points and HIV status interaction were analyzed using Poisson generalized estimating equations, and correlations were analyzed using non-parametric tests. Results: Median age in PWH was 55 years with 28.6% women, while in the HIV- group was 36 years with 60.9% women. The mean time from COVID-19 diagnosis to study enrollment was 16 days for PWH and 11 days for HIV-. The mean CD4+ T-cell count/μl for PWH was 772.10 (±365.21). SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG were detected at all time points and Ab response levels did not differ by HIV status (p > 0.05). At entry, age showed a weak direct association with IgG responses (ρ = 0.44, p < 0.05) in HIV- but did not show any association in PWH. Similar associations between age, IgG, and HIV status emerged at day 14 (T1; ρ = 0.50, p < 0.05), 3 months (T3; ρ = 0.50, p < 0.05), and 6 months visit (T4; ρ = 0.78, p < 0.05) in the HIV- group. Conclusion: The Ab responses in the 6-month post-SARS-CoV-2 infection did not differ by HIV status, though a positive association was found between age and Ab response in older PWH. Results suggest that immune protection and vaccine responses are similar for PWH than for those without HIV infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number768138
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
StatePublished - Mar 7 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • adaptive immunity
  • antibody
  • COVID-19 vaccine
  • HIV
  • innate immunity
  • SARS-CoV-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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