Common challenges to any cell are the processing of the extracellular stimuli it receives into intracellular signaling cascades that initiate a multitude of diverse biological functions. However, many of these stimuli act via a common signaling pathway, suggesting the cell must somehow discriminate between different stimuli and respond accordingly. Subcellular targeting through the association with adaptor and scaffolding proteins has emerged as a key mechanism by which cells maintain signaling specificity. Compartmentation of cAMP signaling is maintained by the clustering of cAMP signaling enzymes in discrete units by the scaffolding protein A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAP). In doing so, AKAPs provide the molecular architecture for the cAMP micordomains that underlie the spacialoral control of cAMP signaling.