A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP)

R. M. Key, A. Kozyr, C. L. Sabine, K. Lee, R. Wanninkhof, J. L. Bullister, R. A. Feely, F. J. Millero, C. Mordy, T. H. Peng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1071 Scopus citations


During the 1990s, ocean sampling expeditions were carried out as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), and the Ocean Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES). Subsequently, a group of U.S. scientists synthesized the data into easily usable and readily available products. This collaboration is known as the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP). Results were merged into a common format data set, segregated by ocean. For comparison purposes, each ocean data set includes a small number of high-quality historical cruises. The data were subjected to rigorous quality control procedures to eliminate systematic data measurement biases. The calibrated 1990s data were used to estimate anthropogenic CO2, potential alkalinity, CFC watermass ages, CFC partial pressure, bomb-produced radiocarbon, and natural radiocarbon. These quantities were merged into the measured data files. The data were used to produce objectively gridded property maps at a 1° resolution on 33 depth surfaces chosen to match existing climatologies for temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients. The mapped fields are interpreted as an annual mean distribution in spite of the inaccuracy in that assumption. Both the calibrated data and the gridded products are available from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Here we describe the important details of the data treatment and the mapping procedure, and present summary quantities and integrals for the various parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2004


  • Carbon
  • Distribution
  • Inventory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Atmospheric Science


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