A genetic linkage study of bipolar disorder and 13 markers on chromosome 11 including the d2 dopamine receptor

John R. Kelsoe, Helgi Kristbjanarson, Patricia Bergesch, Paul Shilling, Sharon Hirsch, Arvin Mirow, Hans W. Moises, Tomas Helgason, J. Christian Gillin, Janice A. Egeland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Chromosome 11 is a region of great interest in the search for genes for bipolar disorder. Although an initial report of linkage to 11p15 was not replicated in numerous subsequent studies, the remainder of the chromosome contains a variety of interesting candidate genes and regions. These include the D2 dopamine receptor and the site of a chromosomal translocation that has been reported to be associated with bipolar disorder. As part of a systematic survey of the genome for markers linked to bipolar disorder, we have examined 13 markers on chromosome 11 in three large Icelandic families and Amish pedigree 110. No clear evidence of linkage was obtained. The highest lod score was found at D11S29 (lod = 1.63 at θ = 0.1), which is in the general region of the reported translocation breakpoints. However, this lod is not statistically significant, and its meaning is further mitigated by strongly negative lods in two nearby flanking markers. Linkage to the D2 dopamine receptor locus was strongly excluded (lod = -4.02 at θ = 0.0). In two-point analyses, linkage to bipolar disorder could be excluded to eight of the 13 markers. Multipoint analyses, similarly, failed to reveal any evidence of linkage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-301
Number of pages9
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1993


  • Bipolar disorder
  • Chromosome 11
  • D dopamine receptor
  • Linkage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


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