A genetic analysis of the validity of the Hypomanic Personality Scale

Sheri L. Johnson, Charles S. Carver, Jutta Joormann, Michael Cuccaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Objectives: Studies of mania risk have increasingly relied on measures of subsyndromal tendencies to experience manic symptoms. The measures of mania risk employed in those studies have been shown to predict manic onset, to show familial associations, and to demonstrate expected correlations with psychosocial variables related to bipolar disorder. However, little work has been conducted to validate such measures against biologically relevant indices, or to consider whether early adversity, which has been shown to be highly elevated among those with bipolar disorder, is related to higher scores on mania risk measures. This study tested whether a well-used, self-report measure of vulnerability to mania is associated with several candidate genes that have previously been linked with bipolar disorder or with early adversity. Interactions of genes with early adversity in the prediction of mania vulnerability were also tested. Methods: Undergraduate students from the University of Miami (Coral Gables, FL, USA) (N = 305) completed the Hypomanic Personality Scale and the Risky Families Scale, and provided blood for genotyping. Results: Findings indicated that the Hypomanic Personality Scale was related to a number of dopamine-relevant polymorphisms and with early adversity. A polymorphism of ANKK1 appeared to specifically increase mania risk in the context of early adversity. Conclusions: These results provide additional support for the validity of the Hypomanic Personality Scale.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)331-339
Number of pages9
JournalBipolar Disorders
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2015


  • Bipolar disorder
  • Dopamine
  • Early adversity
  • Genetic polymorphism
  • Mania risk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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