A distinct neurological syndrome in twelve chronic hæmodialysis patients is described. This syndrome is currently the leading cause of death in one Denver dialysis unit. The hallmarks of this syndrome are progressive speech difficulties, mental changes, and a markedly abnormal electroencephalogram which may be present months before the clinical signs appear. Additional clinical features including seizures, myoclonus, asterixis, apraxia, focal neurological signs, and psychiatric symptoms may also be observed. Neuropathological changes are slight and non-specific, The ætiology of this syndrome is unknown but the clinical and pathological features suggest a toxic/metabolic disorder. To date, this disorder has been refractory to several therapeutic measures.
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