CD8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphocytes block replication of HIV-1 or the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIV(mac)) in PBL of infected individuals. We now show that these CD8+ lymphocytes undergo clonal expansion in vivo after AIDS virus infection of the individual, suggesting they may be antigen-specific T cells. These CD8+ cells block replication of virus in autologous but not MHC class I-mismatched PBL. The inhibitory lymphocytes express the integrin family molecule 4B4 and the CTL-associated S6F1 epitope of LFA-1. Finally, physical contact is required for the CD8+ lymphocyte-mediated inhibition of AIDS virus replication, since this inhibitory function is blocked by anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD8 mAbs. These studies suggest that the cell that inhibits AIDS virus replication in PBL of infected individuals is a CTL.
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